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Symptoms in Cardiovascular Diseases

Symptoms in Cardiovascular Diseases

We can summarize the findings or clinical findings in cardiovascular diseases as follows:

* Chest pain (angina pectoris)
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
* Rhythm disturbances (arrhythmia)
* Heart failure
* Sudden death
* Sometimes no symptoms occur, although cardiovascular disease significantly impairs the supply of the heart (silent ischemia).

Chest pain occurs when the coronary arteries narrow significantly (angina). It is a compressive, squeezing pain that is usually accompanied by fatigue, emotional stress, or coldness, may spread to the anterior chest, left arm, neck, and jaw, lasts 10-15 minutes, and is relieved by rest or taking medications that widen the coronary arteries (stable angina). However, in some cases, dynamic changes may occur at the site of the stenosis. In these cases, the pain may occur even at rest, last longer, and not respond readily to rest or medication (unstable angina). This type of angina is more dangerous because it can easily lead to a heart attack (infarction).

Parts of the body where heart-related chest pain (angina pectoris) is felt.

When the narrowing of the vessel progresses and leads to vascular occlusion, the cells of the part of the heart supplied by that artery no longer function. If the atherosclerosis of the artery lasts longer than 6 hours, the cells of this part cannot maintain their vitality and are irreversibly destroyed. As a result, this part of the heart can no longer contract, cardiac arrhythmias can occur along with serious problems that can lead to death. We call this a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

In infarction, chest pain is similar in location and extent to angina, but much more severe and prolonged. Diagnosis of a myocardial infarction involves not only symptoms but also an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests. If vascular occlusion is opened with balloon or thrombolytic therapy in the first 6 hours after a myocardial infarction, damage to the myocardium may be prevented, so early diagnosis is very important. It should be remembered that 50% of deaths from myocardial infarction occur within 1 hour. The vast majority of these deaths are due to cardiac arrhythmias, which can be easily treated in hospitals. Therefore, patients with similar pain should see a doctor as soon as possible, especially if they are known to have cardiac disease.

However, the usual rules in medicine do not always apply. Sometimes angina or pain due to myocardial infarction does not occur at all, especially in the elderly and diabetics. Such patients may have a silent infarction. Again, instead of chest pain, some patients may have complaints of indigestion, abdominal pain, dyspnea, back pain, arm pain, jaw pain, and even tooth pain.