Peripheral Arterial Embolism
Peripheral artery disease is sudden vascular occlusion caused by a blood clot blocking a narrowed artery (thrombosis) or by a blood clot in a heart or abdominal vessel that breaks off and is carried along with the blood flow, blocking a solid vessel (embolism).
Patients experience symptoms such as sudden onset of pain, faintness, bruising, and cooling in the region behind the occluded vessel. If delayed, neurologic findings such as loss of sensation and motion in the affected area, as well as tension and hardness, may develop. Prognosis is poor in patients who have not been treated by this time, and treatments up to and including amputation of the affected area may be required.
Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography angiography are used for diagnosis. In this type of occlusion, which develops suddenly, the duration of the organs’ resistance to oxygen deprivation varies, and the blood supply must be restored to minimize damage. If not intervened quickly, it is a serious picture that can lead to loss of limbs or even loss of life if a large area is affected.
Factors such as the duration of the disease, the extent of the affected tissue, and the location of the occlusion are important in determining treatment. For patients whose treatment is delayed, treatments with blood thinners are usually used. Percutaneous clot-dissolving medications and aspirating treatments may be used in patients who have not yet exceeded the intervention period. However, surgical treatment is one of the methods used to remove the clot.
In cases where arteries or veins have been partially or completely severed as a result of stab wounds, immediate intervention is required. Intervention is necessary to stop the bleeding and to ensure that the tissues beyond the injury can be supplied with blood. Depending on the condition of the injured vessel, repair with a vein graft or bypass, repair with an artificial vessel, or bypass may be necessary.
Tags: vascular emergencies, vascular traumas, embolism, gangrene, catheter, clot-dissolving, thrombolytic treatment, embolectomy